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In severe pain and inflammatory condition…

LOTEMP

Generic Name:                                Paracetamol

Therapeutic Category:                 Antipyretic and Analgesic

Pharmacological Class:               Centrally acting COX inhibitor

Composition:                                  Each 5 ml contains Paracetamol IP 125 mg.

Pregnancy Category:                    B

Presentation:                                  Available in 60 ml bottle with a measuring cap

Description

Paracetamol belongs to a group of medicines known as analgesics, or painkillers. It is used to relieve mild to moderate pain. It is also useful for lowering a raised temperature (fever), such as during a cold or after childhood immunizations. Paracetamol is often recommended as one of the first treatments for pain, as it’s safe for most people to take and side effects are rare.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of paracetamol is not completely understood. Unlike other NSAIDs, paracetamol does not to inhibit the function of any cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme outside the central nervous system, and this appears to be the reason why it is not useful as an anti-inflammatory. It does appear to selectively inhibit COX activities in the brain, which may contribute to its ability to treat fever and pain. This activity is not likely to directly inhibit by blocking an active site, but rather by reducing COX, which must be oxidized in order to function.

 Indications

  • Fever
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Pain
  • Low Back Pain
  • Headache
  • Post-Operative Pain
  • Dental Pain
  • Patent ductus arteriosus* (but evidence for the safety and efficacy of paracetamol for this purpose is lacking)

Dosage

Route of administration: Oral

Adult: 325-650 mg two-three times a day when necessary; not to exceed 3250 mg/day unless directed by the doctor.

Children:

<6 years: As recommended by the doctor

6-12 years: 325-650 mg two to three times a day when necessary; not to exceed 1.625 g/day for not more than 5 days unless directed by the doctor

>12 years: 325-650 mg two to three times a day; not to exceed 3.25 g/day unless directed by the doctor

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Rapidly and almost complete with bioavailability of approximately 25%.

Protein binding: Approximately greater than 97.5%

Metabolism: Hepatic

Route of elimination: Renal

Half-life: 1-4 hours

Adverse Effects

  • Liver damage
  • Skin reactions
  • Asthma

 

Contraindications

LOTEMP is contraindicated in the following populations and situations:

  • Hypersensitivity to paracetamol or any other components of the formulation.
  • Severe active liver disease

Precautions

In patients with

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Chronic malnutrition
  • Diabetes

Drug Interactions

  • Barbiturates: Render paracetamol less effective and more toxic
  • Isoniazid: May increase the risk of liver damage when used with paracetamol
  • Warfarin: High dose of paracetamol may increase the effect of warfarin
*Terminologies:
  • Patent ductus arteriosus: A condition that affects newborns when a blood vessel used in developing the lungs fails to close as it normally does.